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Prevalence of optical coherence tomography detected vitreomacular interface disorders: The Maastricht Study.

Liesenborghs I, De Clerck EEB, Berendschot TTJM, Goezinne F, Schram MT, Henry RMA, Stehouwer CDA, Webers CAB, Schouten JSAG.



To calculate the prevalence of all vitreomacular interface (VMI) disorders and stratify according to age, sex and (pre)diabetes status.


The presence of VMI disorders was assessed in 2660 participants aged between 40 and 75 years from The Maastricht Study who had a gradable macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) volume scan in at least one eye [mean 59.7 ± 8.2 years, 50.2% men, 1531 normal glucose metabolism (NGM), 401 prediabetes, 728 type 2 diabetes (DM2, oversampled)]. A stratified and multivariable logistic regression analysis was used.


The prevalence of the different VMI disorders for individuals with NGM, prediabetes and DM2 was, respectively, 5.7%, 6% and 6.7% for epiretinal membranes; 6%, 9.6% and 6.8% for vitreomacular traction; 1.1%, 0.7% and 0.3% for lamellar macular holes; 0.1%, 0% and 0% for pseudoholes; 1.1%, 1.9% and 5.5% for macular cysts. None of the participants was diagnosed with a macular hole. The prevalence of epiretinal membranes, vitreomacular traction and macular cysts was higher with age (p < 0.001). Vitreomacular traction and lamellar macular holes were more frequent in women (p < 0.01). DM2 is positively associated [OR = 3.9 (95% CI 2.11-7.22, p < 0.001)] with macular cysts and negatively associated with lamellar macular holes [OR = 0.2 (95% CI 0.04-0.9, p = 0.036)] after adjustment for age and sex. The calculated prevalence of VMI disorders was 15.9%.


The calculated prevalence of VMI disorders in individuals aged between 40 and 75 years is 15.9%. The prevalence depends on age, sex and glucose metabolism status for several types of VMI disorders.

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