Associations of advanced glycation endproducts with cognitive functions in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes - The Maastricht Study
Spauwen PJ, van Eupen MG, Köhler S, Stehouwer CD, Verhey FR, van der Kallen CJ, Sep SJ, Koster A, Schaper NC, Dagnelie PC, Schalkwijk CG, Schram MT, van Boxtel MP.
Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. AGEs are products resulting from nonenzymatic chemical reactions between reduced sugars and proteins, which accumulate during natural aging, and their accumulation is accelerated in hyperglycemic conditions such as type 2 diabetes mellitus.
The objective of the study was to examine associations between AGEs and cognitive functions.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:
This study was performed as part of the Maastricht Study, a population-based cohort study in which, by design, 215 participants (28.1%) had type 2 diabetes mellitus.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
We examined associations of skin autofluorescence (SAF) (n = 764), an overall estimate of skin AGEs, and specific plasma protein-bound AGEs (n = 781) with performance on tests for global cognitive functioning, information processing speed, verbal memory (immediate and delayed word recall), and response inhibition.
After adjustment for demographics, diabetes, smoking, alcohol, waist circumference, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, triglycerides, and lipid-lowering medication use, higher SAF was significantly associated with worse delayed word recall (regression coefficient, b = -0.44; P = .04), and response inhibition (b = 0.03; P = .04). After further adjustment for systolic blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and depression, associations were attenuated (delayed word recall, b = -0.38, P = .07; response inhibition, b = 0.02, P = .07). Higher pentosidine levels were associated with worse global cognitive functioning (b = -0.61; P = .04) after full adjustment, but other plasma AGEs were not. Associations did not differ between individuals with and without diabetes.
We found inverse associations of SAF (a noninvasive marker for tissue AGEs) with cognitive performance, which were attenuated after adjustment for vascular risk factors and depression.