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The association between diabetes status, HbA1c, diabetes duration, microvascular disease, and bone quality of the distal radius and tibia as measured with high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography-The Maastricht Study.

de Waard EAC, de Jong JJA, Koster A, Savelberg HHCM, van Geel TA, Houben AJHM, Schram MT, Dagnelie PC, van der Kallen CJ, Sep SJS5, Stehouwer CDA9, Schaper NC, Berendschot TTJM, Schouten JSAG, Geusens PPMM, van den Bergh JPW.

In this small cross-sectional study of predominantly well-treated participants with relatively short-term type 2 diabetes duration, HbA1c > 7% (53 mmol/mol) was associated with lower cortical density and thickness and higher cortical porosity at the distal radius, lower trabecular thickness at the distal tibia, and higher trabecular number at both sites.


To examine the association between diabetes status and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), bone microarchitecture and strength of the distal radius and tibia as assessed with HR-pQCT. Additionally-in participants with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), to examine the association between HbA1c, diabetes duration, and microvascular disease (MVD) and bone parameters.


Cross-sectional data from 410 (radius) and 198 (tibia) participants of The Maastricht Study (mean age 58 year, 51% female). Diabetes status (normal glucose metabolism, prediabetes, or T2DM) was based on an oral glucose tolerance test and medication history.


After full adjustment, prediabetes and T2DM were not associated with vBMD, bone microarchitecture, and strength of the radius and tibia, except for lower trabecular number (Tb.N) of the tibia (- 4%) in prediabetes and smaller cross-sectional area of the tibia (- 7%) in T2DM. In T2DM, HbA1c > 7% was associated with lower cortical vBMD (- 5%), cortical thickness (- 16%), higher cortical porosity (+ 20%) and Tb.N (+ 9%) of the radius, and higher Tb.N (+ 9%) and lower trabecular thickness (- 13%) of the tibia. Diabetes duration > 5 years was associated with higher Tb.N (+ 6%) of the radius. The presence of MVD was not associated with any bone parameters.


In this study with predominantly well-treated T2DM participants with relatively short-term diabetes duration, inadequate blood glucose control was negatively associated with cortical bone measures of the radius. In contrast, trabecular number was increased at both sites. Studies of larger sample size are warranted for more detailed investigations of bone density and bone quality in patients with T2DM.


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